Engineer doing patent research with colleague
Share on Facebook
Share on Twitter
Share on LinkedIn
By J.D. Houvener
Patent Attorney and Founder

Patents are crucial in protecting your innovative ideas and inventions, but obtaining one is not without costs. Understanding the various expenses associated with the patenting process is integral for inventors and businesses alike, helping to effectively budget and make informed decisions. With a comprehensive look at everything from initial expenses to maintenance costs, you can gain a clearer picture of the financial commitments involved in obtaining a patent.

Initial Expenses

When embarking on the patent journey, initial expenses often act as the first hurdle. Prior to filing a patent application, one must first conduct a patent search to ensure that the invention is indeed novel and not already protected by an existing patent. This process can be time-consuming and complex, often necessitating the expertise of a patent attorney. The cost of this service can vary widely, typically ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars depending on the complexity of the invention.

In addition to a patent search, creating detailed patent drawings and obtaining a patentability opinion can also contribute to the initial costs. The drawings can cost anywhere from $100 to $400 per page, depending on the intricacy of the invention. A patentability opinion, which is a legal opinion provided by a patent attorney about the likelihood of receiving a patent, is another cost to consider. It serves as a valuable tool in deciding whether to proceed with the patent application process and can range from $1,000 to $5,000.

Attorney Fees for Application Drafting

Writing the detailed specification and assembling the drawings, and drafting detailed claims are the bulk of the work for a patent attorney. Oftentimes the patent attorney will go through several drafts going back and forth with the client to get the claims just right. The amount of time it takes to fully describe the invention does depend on how complex the invention is, and how many (or few) moving parts, electronics, systems, software, etc. there are to describe in full detail. For this reason, it doesn’t take as much time to describe a simple consumer product like a water bottle, as it does to describe a new signal processing software solution. So, the attorneys fee for this ranges from $10,000 – $30,000, depending on the complexity of the invention.

Filing Costs

Filing costs are a significant part of the patent application process. These are fees charged by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) for processing the patent application. The cost can vary depending on the type of patent (utility, design, or plant) and the size of the entity filing the patent. As of July 2023, the basic filing fee for a utility patent ranges from $64 for micro-entities, $128 for small entities, to $320 for large entities.

Moreover, filing costs may increase based on the complexity of the patent application. Additional fees may be necessary for extra claims beyond a certain number, the length of the application, and other various aspects. For instance, if your application includes more than three independent claims or more than twenty total claims, additional fees are required. These are the costs only for filing the patent application. The examination fee and search fee, both required by the USPTO, add to the total filing costs. 

Prosecution Costs

The majority of patent applications in the United States, possibly as high as 85% to 95% of all filed applications, receive at least one rejection, known as an Office Action, during the examination process. These rejections don’t necessarily mean the application will not ultimately be granted. Many patents go through a process of negotiation between the patent attorney and the examiner, also known as the patent prosecution, which often involves making amendments to the claims or arguing against the examiner’s interpretations and conclusions. This back-and-forth can result in an initially rejected application eventually being allowed and issued as a patent.

The patent prosecution can be a significant part of the patenting process cost. The costs involved in responding to Office Actions can vary, but typically they range from $1,000 to $3,000 per response, depending on the complexity of the issues raised.

In some cases, further amendments to the claims may be required to distinguish your invention from prior art, or you may need to argue against the examiner’s rejections. If the examiner continues to reject the application, an appeal can be filed with the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB). This process can significantly increase prosecution costs due to its complexity and the need for legal expertise. Appeals can cost anywhere from $5,000 to $20,000, or more, depending on the complexity of the issues and the amount of legal work required. Understanding these potential costs is crucial for budgeting the patent application process.

Maintenance costs

Even after successfully obtaining a patent, there are ongoing expenses to consider. In the U.S., maintenance fees are required to keep a utility patent in force beyond 3.5, 7.5, and 11.5 years from the date of grant. Again, these fees vary based on the size of the entity. As of July 2023, the maintenance fees range from $400 to $2,000 for the first period of maintenance. Failure to pay these fees will result in the patent expiring prematurely, which may potentially open your invention up to public use.

If a maintenance fee is not paid by the due date, the USPTO allows a six-month grace period for payment with a surcharge. However, if the maintenance fee and the surcharge are not paid within the grace period, the patent will expire. Reinstating an expired patent due to non-payment of maintenance fees can be costly and complicated. Therefore, keeping track of maintenance fees and deadlines is essential to avoid unnecessary costs and to maintain the exclusive rights provided by your patent.

Optional Additional Costs

While the costs described so far relate to obtaining and maintaining a patent within the United States, inventors often need to consider international patent protection. This introduces additional costs that can be quite significant. If you plan on protecting your invention globally, one common route is filing under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), which allows your patent application to be considered by over 150 participating countries. The fees for a PCT application can vary significantly based on the chosen countries and the need for translations, but can easily exceed several thousand dollars.

Additionally, it’s important to consider potential legal costs related to enforcing your patent rights or defending against infringement allegations. Patent litigation is notoriously expensive, with legal fees potentially running into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. While it’s not a given that every patent will be involved in litigation, it’s an aspect worth considering when budgeting for potential costs. Similarly, costs might arise from the need to obtain professional patent monitoring services to track potential infringements and stay updated on relevant technological advancements in your domain.

Find Out More About Patent Costs

Navigating the costs associated with obtaining a patent can be complex, involving a range of fees from initial filing to maintenance. The entire process requires careful consideration and planning, not only to protect your invention but also to effectively manage your budget. That’s where professional assistance can make a difference. The team at Bold Patents is well-equipped to guide you through this process, providing clarity on the costs and helping you make informed decisions. Don’t hesitate to reach out to our attorneys at Bold Patents to better understand the financial landscape of your patent journey.

About the Author
J.D. Houvener is a Registered USPTO Patent Attorney who has a strong interest in helping entrepreneurs and businesses thrive. J.D. leverages his technical background in engineering and experience in the aerospace industry to provide businesses with a unique perspective on their patent needs. He works with clients who are serious about investing in their intellectual assets and provides counsel on how to capitalize their patents in the market. If you have any questions regarding this article or patents in general, consider contacting J.D. at